Sound Expression by Sonesta Mastering

 

16 bit

24 bit

44.1 kHz

48 kHz

96 kHz

A
Analog to Digital Converter:

Analogue to Digital Converter is an interface that converts analogue audio signal into digital format. It requires no external support to do its bit and the quality of the digital output it produces is on par with its original.

AAC:

MP3 and AAC are a mode of compression in which compression process filters out extra elements from WAV or AIFF files to reduce the original file size up to 10%, depending on the Bit Rate of the compressed file.

Ableton Live:

Ableton Live is a software application for music production. The users of Ableton can also avail themselves of Sonesta Online Mastering for their mixes if they like. All they have to do is to send the mixes to us and get them in stereo WAV or AIFF format.

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF):

AIFF is one of the most commonly used uncompressed digital audio file format.

Audio Codec:

Audio Codec is software used to compress and decompress digital audio data into MP3, WMA, AAC, Ogg Vorbis and FLAC.

B

Bit Depth:

Bit Depth is the bits counts contained in a given digital audio sample. Standard audio CDs have 16 bits and have the frequency of 44.1 kHz. Other formats like DVD-A contain 24 bits and have the frequency rate of 96 kHz. Generally, as the bit counts and frequency rate of a sample lowers, so does the quality of PCM digital audio.

A binary number which contains sixteen 0s or 1s is equal to 216 or has the range of 65536 decimal states per sample; and a binary number which contains twenty-four 0s or 1s is equal to 224 or has a range of 16777216 decimal states per sample. Hence, files having higher bit depths have larger file size and need more storage area.

Bit Rate:
Bit rate is a measure of the transfer or process of bits of digital audio files per second. According to the rate of transfer, it is called bps or Kbps or Mbps. Files having higher bit rates have better quality, greater size and require greater storage capacity.

BLUE Book:
Blue Book is a technical name for Enhanced CD (ECD) or multi-session CD which can be played back on CD player or straight from a computer.

Blue-Ray:
Blue-Ray is a state-of-the-art storage media called optical disc. It looks just like ordinary CDs or DVDs but has the capacity to contain data up to 25 GB.

Brick Wall Limiting:
Pick Limiting amplifies sound. This process carried out beyond certain limit, in fact, harms the sound quality.

C
Checksum:
Checksum is a method of finding out the integrity of data that is being transferred through network. Data is measured both at the source and the destination. If the delivered data fails to match with the source data, then it is an indication of the data having been corrupted. If the delivered data is equal to the source data, then it means that transfer of data is being carried out with success. Currently, Sonesta Mastering is right on its course of adopting checksums for this processes.

Compressed Files:

Files are often reduced in size so that they don’t use up more storage area, and can be copied and emailed easily. File compression is of two types: that in which data suffers loss and that in which it doesn’t.

FLAC and MLP are a mode of compression in which data is not lost. WAV or AIFF files can be compressed up to 50% without any impairment of audio quality. Zip/Unzip is another example of lossless compression. Sonesta Online Mastering has adopted the latter to upload multiple titles at one go and easy.

On the other hand, MP3 and AAC are a mode of compression in which compression process filters out extra elements from WAV or AIFF files to reduce the original file size up to 10%, depending on the Bit Rate of the compressed file. It does compromise audio fidelity. That is the reason why Sonesta Mastering does not make use of these lossy types of compression in spite of the fact that these are easy to upload.

Another mode of compression, called Windows Media Audio (WMA), is offered by Microsoft. The loss of data or fidelity of compression largely depends upon what kind of Windows Audio Codec is being used.

Compression:
Compression is the name of a process of reducing the Dynamic Range of an audio signal by changing the input-output ratio at a defined threshold.

Copper:

The difference between copper and Lacquer disc media is that the former produces clarity of sound whereas the latter is good for producing dance music because of the warm bass.

Cubase:
It’s a music production software produced by Steinberg. Sonesta Mastering proposes to process your music mixes if you are using Cubase. All you have to do is to send us your mix to us. We offer to export it in stereo WAV or AIFF file format.

D

Digital to Analog Converter:

Digital to Analogue Converter is an interface which helps convert the digital audio signals to the analogue. The quality of conversion has direct bearing on how exactly the analogue signals match the digital signals.

Digital Audio Workstation (DAW)
DAW is a computerized system of recording and processing audio and Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) data. It requires hardware support for doing its stuff. Sonesta Mastering employs it on platforms like Pro Tools and such systems as SADiE, Pyramix and Sonic SoundBlade.

Disc Description Protocol (DDP):
DDP is an image file used in making audio CDs. It not only contains audio content but also tracks timings and other information. CD manufacturers require DDP images; because these can be recorded on CD/DVD and can easily be sent across a network.

Digital Performer
Digital Performer is a product of the Mark of the Unicorn (MOTU) created with DAW. Sonesta Mastering is good at extending its mastering services to Digital Performer users. All you need to do is to send your mixes to us in WAV or AIFF format.

Direct Metal Mastering (DMM):

DMM is a mastering mode that uses copper media instead of Lacquer discs for producing vinyl masters. The difference between copper and Lacquer disc media is that the former produces clarity of sound whereas the latter is good for producing dance music because of its warm bass. Sonesta Mastering keeps both DMM lathe and lacquer lathe.

Dolby Digital (DD):
Dolby Digital is a kind of algorithm, like DTS, meant for data rate reduction. Normally it is employed for stereo sound audio on standard DVD-Vs.

Direct Stream Digital (DSD):
DSD a digital audio stream produced by Sony and Philips to be used on Super Audio Compact Discs (SACD). The difference between PCM and DSD audio is that PCM on standard CDs have 16 bit samples at a 44.1 kHz whereas DSD has 1 bit samples at 2.8224 MHz.

DTS:
DTS is an algorithm for data rate reduction and is used for stereo sound on standard DVD-Vs. It is said that DTS is better than Dolby Digital algorithm; but both DTS and Dolby Digital algorithm are used on Blu-Ray to supply an encoder which doesn’t lose any data.

Digital Versatile Disc Audio (DVD-A):

DVD-A is out and out meant for audio recording which fully supports stereo and surround sound without requiring quality which is reduced by such data rate reduction algorithms as Dolby Digital and DTS. It uses a different kind of data rate reduction algorithm called Meridian Lossless Packing (MLP) which makes it even more compact. Apart from DVD-A, we can also have a hybrid DVD which is capable of containing both DVD-V and DVD-A.

Digital Versatile Disc Video (DVD-V):
DVD-V is just another type of DVD meant for recording movies and graphics. It requires that the surrounding sound audio has its data rate reduced. However, it doesnt require stereo sound to be data rate reduced.

Dynamic range:
Dynamic range is the difference between the loud parts and the quiet parts of a piece of music. There is a trend among some artists to have their music mastered in a way that they get their music as loud as possible with the view to its reproduction on such playback options as iPod. The problem here is that this practice may compromise the track’s dynamic range.

E

EQ:
Equalization is a process that runs throughout the recording process and it improves and lessens the required frequencies of a track. It enhances the performance of the whole track in such a way that it becomes fit for any playback environment.

F
Free Lunch:
Free Lunch is an imaginary object that has to do with Peak Limiting.
FTP:
FTP is a file transfer protocol meant for transferring data from one computer to another through intranet or internet. Sonesta Mastering makes use of secure FTP to send and receive tracks of music.

G
GarageBand:
GarageBand is a software produced by Apple specially for Mac OSX. Sonesta Online Mastering offers to serve your mastering needs if you are using GarageBand. All you got to do is to send us your mix as WAV or AIFF file.

I
International Code Product Number (ICPN):
ICPN is a 13 digit identification number assigned to any physical audio product which is unique to it. This number varies depending on whether it is a digital or an analogue recording.

International Standard Recording Code (ISRC):
ISRC is a unique 12 digit identification code assigned to a sound recording. It eases logging process for radio plays and also royalty collection. If you belong to the United Kingdom, you need to be a member of Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL) in order to get ISRC. PPL URL is www.ppluk.com.

L
Lacquer:
Lacquer is the material used in manufacture of vinyl masters. The reason for using lacquer masters is that it offers warm bass which is very conducive for dance music. On the other hand, copper masters produce clearer sound.

Limiting:
Limiting is a compression mode identified by high compression ratio. For example if compression ratio is 10:1, what it means is that a 10dB change at the input causes but 1dB change at output. Limiting having a compression ratio of infinity: 1 is called Peak Limiting.

LOGIC Pro:
LOGIC Pro (and Logic Express and Logic Studio) is one of the famous Digital Audio Workstations produced by Apple Inc. Sonesta Mastering offers mastering services to meet the needs of those who use Logic. All you got to do is to send us your mixes as WAV or AIFF files.

Lossless Compression:
FLAC and MLP are a mode of compression in which data is not lost. WAV or AIFF files can be compressed up to 50% without any impairment of audio quality. Zip/Unzip is another example of lossless compression. Sonesta Online Mastering has adopted the latter to upload multiple titles at one go.

M
Mastering:
Mastering is the last stage of processing audio recording. It includes Equalizing, compression, limiting and assembling tracks to churn out final product. When more than one track are to be processed for an album, artist needs to determine beforehand how much space should be there between the tracks. Even now when shuffling iPods are in place, people love listening to albums right from the beginning to the end.

MD5 Checksum:

Musical Instrument digital Interface (MIDI)
MIDI is a protocol in effect since 1983, and it is meant for electronic musical instruments, computers, etc. It helps them synchronize with each other and facilitates communication and control. It not only conveys audio signals, it also helps transmit event messages related to time, such as note value and velocity. These can be recorded, further processed and played back.

MLP

MP3:

On the other hand, MP3 and AAC are a mode of compression in which compression process filters out extra elements from WAV or AIFF files to reduce the original file size up to 10%, depending on the Bit Rate of the compressed file. It does compromise audio fidelity. That is the reason why Sonesta Mastering does not make use of these lossy types of compression in spite of the fact that these are easy to upload.

O
ORANGE Book:
ORANGE Book is a compilation of specifications given by Philips/Sony for CD-R.

P
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM):
PCM digitally represents analogue signals sampled at regular intervals and is meant for uncompressed files stored on computers and on standard Red Book CDs.

Peak Limiting:
Pick Limiting amplifies sound. This process carried out beyond certain limit, in fact, harms the sound quality.

Pre-master CD (PMCD):
PMCD was actually used for a CDR containing extra information which paces up the manufacturing procedure. Now the term is used for CDR which is checked and passed through audition process before finally assigned to manufacturing process.

Pyramix Media Format (PMF):
PMF is an audio file format meant specially for Pyramix DAW. Sonesta Mastering has yet to settle down on it.

Post Production:
Post Production is a name given to all activities carried out in music mastering studios on tracks after they are mixed. Sonesta Mastering post production services contain mastering, re-mastering, copying and duplication of CDs in mass.

Pro Tools:
Pro Tools is a DAW used both in professional and home recording studios. Sonesta Mastering can extend its services to you if you are the user of Pro Tools. All you got to do is to send us your mixes in stereo WAV or AIFF format.

R
Reason:
Reason is a well-known music production software application produced by Propellerheads. Sonesta Mastering Online services can extend its services to you if you are using Reason. All you have to do is to send us your mixes to us in WAV or AIFF file format.

RED Book:
RED Book is a set of specifications given by Philips/Sony for audio CDs.

S

Sonesta Mastering: A premier Mastering studio specialized in providing high fidelity mastering service online. Sonesta Mastering studio uses professional equipment and and experienced engineer that allow to provide outstanding audio mastering services at affordable rates to artists, record labels, singers, producers, recording studios and more from all over the world, ensuring all clients get the perfect sound that ready for digital distribution and radio play.

Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD)
SACD is an optical audio disc format produced by Sony/Philips which offers higher audio fidelity than is offered by CD. It comes in two different types: SACD, which employs DSD data stream, and hybrid SACD, which offers dual facility of conventional 16 bit 44.1 kHz audio and SACD. When it is played on a player which supports it, the laser selects one of the two layers there are.

SADiE 5:
SADiE 5 is a DAW made use of by Sonesta Mastering to carry out the post production procedure.

Sampling Frequency:
Sampling Frequency, a.k.a. Sample Rate, indicates the number of times analogue audio signal is sampled per second to create a digital signal. A digital audio sample holds binary value with fixed Bit Depth. Standard CDs offer 44.1 kHz sampling frequency at a bit depth of 16 bits whereas other media like DVD-A have 96 kHz sampling frequency at a bit depth of 24 bits. As the sampling frequency and bit depth get lower, so does the quality of digital audio.

Frequency range depends on the number of samples per second. The greater the number of samples per second, the wider frequency range. Although the highest frequency range can be about half the sampling frequency. Professionally, other commonly observed sample rates are 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz and 192 kHz. Files having higher sampling frequencies are larger in size and require more storage area.

Scarlet Book:
Scarlet Book is a technical term for SACD.

Sound Designer 2 (SDII):
SDII is DigiDesigns proprietary audio file format. It is now replaced by WAV and AIFF file formats.

Sonic SoundBlade:
Sonic SoundBlade, earlier known as Sonic Solutions, is a DAW which is used in Sonesta Mastering.

Stuffit:
Stuffit is a name given to a group of software designed for archiving and compressing files on Apple Mac computers. Sonesta Mastering prefers to use Zip/Unzip files instead of Stuffit which are supported by OSX platform used by it.

W
Waveform Audio File Format (WAV):
WAV is an uncompressed digital audio file format created by Microsoft and IBM. Broadcast Wave Format (BWF), a WAV file, contains time position reference which goes with video content.
WMA:
Windows Media Audio (WMA), is offered by Microsoft. The loss of data or fidelity of compression largely depends upon what kind of Windows Audio Codec is being used.

Z
Zip/Unzip or WinZip

WinZip is a Microsoft product software“ that is used for archiving and compressing files. The advantage of this mode of compression is that it does not allow any loss of data

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